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Dumpers are a heavy duty 4 wheel drive vehicle designed for carrying bulk material and move construction material on construction sites, with the added advantage of legal road use.
Formerly, the dumper was a sort of rocking wagon: it would be used to unload the content: fruits, vegetables and so on, by tipping over. The cart would be pulled by animals, usually horses. The principle of modern dumpers as construction equipment is similar: it is a truck with a bucket that can carry and pour the material out and into a crusher for example.
Different kinds of dumpers
There are different kinds of dumpers:
Articulated Dump Trucks
Rigid Dump Trucks
Tracked Dump Trucks
Rigid dump trucks are generally two-wheel drive. They are easily recognizable as its dump extends to the top of the cab. Rigid dumpers are those with the largest storage capacity. Payload weight breaks records: 30 to 360 tones. For them to be able to move, the engine must be powerful to be able to pull such a weight. Tires can reach impressive diameters and widths to withstand such loads. Rigid dumpers, even if they can reach 50 km / h, only move on maintained land. Rigid dumpers can intervene when there is a preliminary work of preparing the ground. You can find rigid dumpers in quarries, surface mines and large building sites.
Articulated dump trucs
Articulated trucks are more mobile. They usually have six wheels, which gives them better adaptation to rough terrain or muddy. Rigid dumpers result from the assembly of a tractor and a farm trailer. Volvo was the precursor and remains a reference for articulated dump trucks. The payload of articulated dump trucks is reduced compared to rigid dumpers: it goes from 25 to 40 tons and rarely rises above 50 tones. Articulated dump trucks are mostly used for road works, earthworks and transport in quarries.
Mini dumpers are a small version of the articulated truck, like a motored wheelbarrow with a maximum possible weight load of 8 tones.
Tracked dumpers usually have a payload smaller than articulated trucks. The tracks tend to slow speed but improve the stability of the craft.